Tehran Conference Agreements

The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka[1]) was a strategic meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill from November 28 to December 1, 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. It took place at the Embassy of the Soviet Union in Tehran, Iran (Persia). It was the first conference of the „Big Three” Allied leaders (Soviet Union, United States and United Kingdom) during World War II. It followed closely the Cairo Conference, held from 22 to 26 November 1943, and preceded the 1945 Kanta and Potsdam Conferences. Although the three leaders met with different targets, the main outcome of the Tehran conference was the western allies` commitment to open a second front against Nazi Germany. The conference also focused on the relations of the „Big Three” allies with Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan, as well as the draft post-war settlement. A separate protocol signed at the conference forced the big three to recognize Iran`s independence. The declaration made by the three leaders at the end of the conference of December 1, 1943, retained the following military conclusions: Stalin was reluctant to leave Moscow and was not willing to risk air travel[4] while Roosevelt was physically handicapped and found travel difficult.

Churchill was an enthusiastic traveler and had already met Roosevelt five times in North America and twice in Africa as part of a series of war conferences and had previously held two meetings with Stalin in Moscow. [2] To organize this much-needed meeting, Roosevelt tried to persuade Stalin to go to Cairo. Rejecting this offer, Stalin also offered to meet in Baghdad or Basra, eventually agreeing to meet in Tehran in November 1943. [2] The conference was scheduled to meet on November 28, 1943 at 4.m. Stalin arrived early, followed by Roosevelt, who pulled his wheelchair out of his accommodation next to the event venue. Roosevelt, who had traveled 7,000 miles (11,000 km) to participate, and whose health was already deteriorating, met Stalin for the first time. Churchill, who had left with his staff from their neighbouring accommodation, arrived half an hour later. Although Stalin accepted the aforementioned agreements, he dominated the conference. He took advantage of the prestige of the Soviet victory in the Battle of Stalingrad to get his will across.

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